Types of skin cancer? How are they diagnosed and treated?

What is skin cancer?

Though skin cancer can spread to any part of the skin, it primarily affects the areas of the skin that are usually exposed to the sun.

Types of skin cancer

The most common and well-known types of skin cancers are as follows.

Basal cell carcinoma

This cancer mostly affects areas of the skin that are often exposed to the sun. This skin cancer may appear as a lustrous bump or flat reddish-brown scar-like lesion on the skin. It can also appear as a bleeding or scabbing sore that may keep healing and returning.

Squamous cell carcinoma

This type of cancer usually affects areas commonly exposed to the sun, such as the face, ears, and hands. Dark-skinned people can develop this cancer in areas not exposed to the sun. This cancer can appear as a firm, red nodule or a flat lesion with a crusted surface.


This can develop on any part of the body, commonly on the face or the trunk in men and the lower legs for women. Melanoma often appears as a large brownish spot or a mole that can change color or size. Sometimes it may also develop as a painful dark lesion on the palm, toes, or mouth lining, nose, anus, or vagina.

Some other types of skin cancers that are not that common are as follows.

  1. Kaposi sarcoma: This cancer develops in the skin’s blood vessels and may appear as red or purple patches on the skin. This type of skin cancer often develops in people with weak immune systems.
  2. Merkel cell carcinoma: This type of skin cancer can develop on or below the skin cells or sometimes in the hair follicles. This cancer can develop in the form of firm, shiny nodules.
  3. Sebaceous gland carcinomas: This cancer appears as hard, painless nodules in the oil glands in the skin, most commonly on the eyelid.

How is skin cancer diagnosed?

The earlier the cancer is diagnosed, the easier and simpler the treatment is. Dr. Vikas Goswami is among the best oncologist in Noida at Zeeva cancer hospital in Noida, who can provide you with the most accurate diagnosis of the type as well cause of your cancer. The diagnosis is often made in two steps.

  1. The doctor physically examines the skin to get an idea if it is a common infection or the development of serious skin cancer.
  2. A biopsy is done on a small sample of the infected skin to confirm the diagnosis & determine the cause and type of skin cancer you have.
  3. After a confirmed diagnosis, some additional tests may also be done to get a firm idea of the severity of skin cancer, termed as the stage of cancer. The stage ranges from stage I to stage IV with increasing severity and spread of cancer. After this, Dr. Vikas, the best oncologist in Noida at Zeeva cancer hospital in Noida, will suggest the treatment procedure best suitable for the person diagnosed with cancer.

Some treatments for skin cancer

The treatment usually varies depending on the type, size, or stage of the skin cancer. To get the best treatment for your skin, visit Dr. Vikas, the best oncologist in Noida at Zeeva cancer hospital in Noida. Being the best oncologist in Noida, he will guide you through every step of your treatment along with his highly-skilled assisting staff at Zeeva clinic, the best cancer hospital in Noida.

  • For very small cancers that are developed only on the skin’s surface, a skin biopsy can be done to remove the entire growth in one go.


Doctors treat early skin cancers by freezing them with liquid nitrogen. This procedure is known as cryosurgery.

Excisional surgery

In this procedure, the cancerous tissue and the surrounding area of the skin are cut out to remove cancer.

Mohs surgery

This procedure is used to treat large cancers that have developed in areas like the nose, where conserving skin as much as possible is required. The procedure includes removing the abnormal skin growth layer by layer under examination until no cancer cells remain.

Curettage and electrodesiccation

This procedure scrapes away layers of cancer cells using a device with a circular blade called a curet. Sometimes, the base may also be frozen by liquid nitrogen.


Chemotherapy means using drugs and medications to treat cancer. Certain types of skin cancers that are limited to the top layer of the skin can be treated by applying some lotions regularly. For cancers that have spread to other parts, systematic chemotherapy is used.

Photodynamic therapy

Laser light, along with the use of medications, is used to treat cancer in this therapy. This treatment is best suitable for cancers that are highly sensitive to light.

Biological therapy

Cancer is fought against by strengthening the body’s in-built immune system.

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